PRO analyse

I tillegg til de sentrale anbefalingene om analyse av PRO data som du finner under PRO i kliniske studier finner du her annen nyttig litteratur om relevante tema innen statistisk analyse av PRO data.


Generell innføring i statistiske metoder i klinisk og epidemiologisk forskning: «Medical statistics» av Veierød et al.(eds.).


Generell innføring i livskvalitetsforskning:

“Quality of Life: The Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation of Patient-reported Outcomes” av Fayers & Machin 


«Missing data»:

Multiple imputation as a flexible tool for missing data handling in clinical research. 
Enders CK. Behav Res Ther. 2017;98:4-18. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.008. PMID: 27890222


Missing data: an introductory conceptual overview for the novice researcher.
El-Masri MM, Fox-Wasylyshyn SM. Can J Nurs Res. 2005;37(4):156-71. PMID: 16541824


Handling missing data in self-report measures.
Fox-Wasylyshyn SM, El-Masri MM. Res Nurs Health. 2005;28(6):488-95. PMID: 16287052


The current practice of handling and reporting missing outcome data in eight widely used PROMs in RCT publications: a review of the current literature.
Rombach I, Rivero-Arias O, Gray AM, Jenkinson C, Burke Ó. Qual Life Res. 2016;25(7):1613-23. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1206-1. PMID: 26821918


Cancer survivors not participating in observational patient-reported outcome studies have a lower survival compared to participants: the population-based PROFILES registry.
Qual Life Res. 2018; 27(12):3313-3324. doi: 10.1007/s11136-018-1979-0


«Item Response Theory»:

An introduction to item response theory for patient-reported outcome measurement.
Nguyen TH, Han HR, Kim MT, Chan KS. Patient. 2014;7(1):23-35. doi: 10.1007/s40271-013-0041-0. PMID: 24403095


Item response theory and its applications to patient-reported outcomes measurement.
Chang CH, Reeve BB. Eval Health Prof. 2005;28(3):264-82. PMID: 16123257


An Introduction to Item Response Theory Using the Need for Cognition Scale. Edwards MC. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2009;3(4):507–529. (not indexed in PubMed)


«Flooring and Ceiling Effects »:

A comparison of methods for analyzing health-related quality-of-life measures.
Austin PC. Value Health. 2002;5(4):329-37. PMID: 12102695


Modeling Outcomes With Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model. Matthew McBee. Gifted Child Quarterly. 2010;54(4). (not indexed in PubMed)


Norske artikler om PRO analyse:

Når målingen går i taket

Pripp, H. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2019 doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0880


Hvordan oppsummere ordinale data?

Lydersen, S. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020 doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.20.0033



Lydersen, S. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2022 doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.22.0041


Indre konsistens: fra alfa til omega? 

Stensen, K., Lydersen, S. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2022 doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.22.0112